A free trade agreement is a preferential regime in which members reduce tariffs on trade between themselves while maintaining their own tariffs for trade with non-members. Since the early 2000s, India has had a growing trade deficit with ASEAN, with imports exceeding exports by more than $6 billion in 2007-08.  There are concerns that gradual liberalization of tariffs and increased imports to India could threaten several economic sectors, including the plantation sector, some processing industries and the maritime industry.  As a dominant exporter of light industrial products, ASEAN has competitive tariffs that prevent India from accessing the industrial market in ASEAN countries.  Free trade agreements (FTAs) are agreements between two or more countries or between a country and a trading bloc aimed at removing or reducing tariffs, quotas and preferences for goods and services traded. The Indeinem and Japanese EPS came into force on August 1, 2011. Bilateral trade between the two countries grew strongly during the year of its implementation, for example. B 2011-2012 compared to the previous year 2010-11. However, not only did the bilateral trade flow decline thereafter, but it experienced great volatility between 2011-12 and 2018-19. Although exports to Japan continued to increase during the implementation year. B 2011-12, they declined thereafter. On the other hand, imports from Japan increased, but fluctuated manyly.
However, as in the case of ASEAN and Korea, India`s trade deficit with Japan increased not only between 2011 and 2012-18-19, but also grew faster than India`s trade deficit with the world. On 17 June 2003, India and MERCOSUR signed an initial framework agreement that defined reciprocal tariff preferences and proposed a free trade area between the two parties, in accordance with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. In this context, On 8 October 2003, India concluded the framework agreement for the activation of its ECSC with ASEAN. India has negotiated trade liberalization agreements with several countries and trade associations, including pre-free trade agreement programs and alternative trade facilitation programmes with ASEAN, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The ASEAN-India Free Trade Area (AIFTA) is a free trade area between the ten member countries of the Association of South Asian Nations (ASEAN) and India. The initial framework agreement was signed on 8 October 2003 in Bali, Indonesia.  and the final agreement was August 13, 2009 The Free Trade Area came into force on January 1, 2010.   India hosted the last ASEAN-India Memorial Summit in New Delhi on 26 January 2018. In fiscal year 2017/18, bilateral trade between Indo and ASEAN increased by nearly 14% to $81.3 billion. India`s imports from ASEAN totaled $47.13 billion, while its exports to ASEAN totaled $34.2 billion.
 In the modern world, free trade policy is often implemented by a formal and reciprocal agreement between the nations concerned. However, a free trade policy may simply be the absence of trade restrictions. Or there are guidelines that exempt certain products from duty-free status to protect domestic producers from foreign competition in their industries. India has already signed framework agreements with the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market in Spanish) trade blocs, as well as with countries such as Japan and Korea.